WordPress.org websites (collectively “WordPress.org” in this document) refer to sites hosted on the WordPress.org, WordPress.net, WordCamp.org, BuddyPress.org, bbPress.org, and other related domains and subdomains thereof.

Website Visitors

Like most website operators, WordPress.org collects non-personally-identifying information of the sort that web browsers and servers typically make available, such as the browser type, language preference, referring site, and the date and time of each visitor request. WordPress.org’s purpose in collecting non-personally identifying information is to better understand how WordPress.org’s visitors use its website. From time to time, WordPress.org may release non-personally-identifying information in the aggregate, e.g., by publishing a report on trends in the usage of its website.

WordPress.org also collects potentially personally-identifying information like Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. WordPress.org does not use such information to identify its visitors, however, and does not disclose such information, other than under the same circumstances that it uses and discloses personally-identifying information, as described below.

Gathering of Personally-Identifying Information

Certain visitors to WordPress.org choose to interact with WordPress.org in ways that require WordPress.org to gather personally-identifying information. The amount and type of information that WordPress.org gathers depends on the nature of the interaction. For example, we ask visitors who use our forums to provide a username and email address. In each case, WordPress.org collects such information only insofar as is necessary or appropriate to fulfill the purpose of the visitor’s interaction with WordPress.org. WordPress.org does not disclose personally-identifying information other than as described below. And visitors can always refuse to supply personally-identifying information, with the caveat that it may prevent them from engaging in certain website-related activities.

Aggregated Statistics

WordPress.org may collect statistics about the behavior of visitors to its websites. For instance, WordPress.org may reveal how many downloads a particular version got, or say which plugins are most popular based on checks from api.wordpress.org, a web service used by WordPress installations to check for new versions of WordPress and plugins. However, WordPress.org does not disclose personally-identifying information other than as described below.

Protection of Certain Personally-Identifying Information

WordPress.org discloses potentially personally-identifying and personally-identifying information only to those of its employees, contractors, and affiliated organizations that (i) need to know that information in order to process it on WordPress.org’s behalf or to provide services available at WordPress.org, and (ii) that have agreed not to disclose it to others. Some of those employees, contractors and affiliated organizations may be located outside of your home country; by using WordPress.org, you consent to the transfer of such information to them. WordPress.org will not rent or sell potentially personally-identifying and personally-identifying information to anyone. Other than to its employees, contractors, and affiliated organizations, as described above, WordPress.org discloses potentially personally-identifying and personally-identifying information only when required to do so by law, or when WordPress.org believes in good faith that disclosure is reasonably necessary to protect the property or rights of WordPress.org, third parties, or the public at large. If you are a registered user of a WordPress.org website and have supplied your email address, WordPress.org may occasionally send you an email to tell you about new features, solicit your feedback, or just keep you up to date with what’s going on with WordPress.org and our products. We primarily use our blog to communicate this type of information, so we expect to keep this type of email to a minimum. If you send us a request (for example via a support email or via one of our feedback mechanisms), we reserve the right to publish it in order to help us clarify or respond to your request or to help us support other users. WordPress.org takes all measures reasonably necessary to protect against the unauthorized access, use, alteration, or destruction of potentially personally-identifying and personally-identifying information.

Cookies

A cookie is a string of information that a website stores on a visitor’s computer, and that the visitor’s browser provides to the website each time the visitor returns. WordPress.org uses cookies to help WordPress.org identify and track visitors, their usage of WordPress.org, and their website access preferences. WordPress.org visitors who do not wish to have cookies placed on their computers should set their browsers to refuse cookies before using WordPress.org’s websites, with the drawback that certain features of WordPress.org’s websites may not function properly without the aid of cookies.

Privacy Policy Changes

Although most changes are likely to be minor, WordPress.org may change its Privacy Policy from time to time, and in WordPress.org’s sole discretion. WordPress.org encourages visitors to frequently check this page for any changes to its Privacy Policy. Your continued use of this site after any change in this Privacy Policy will constitute your acceptance of such change.

Creative Commons License

The license under which the WordPress software is released is the GPLv2 (or later) from the Free Software Foundation. A copy of the license is included with every copy of WordPress, but you can also read the text of the license here.

Part of this license outlines requirements for derivative works, such as plugins or themes. Derivatives of WordPress code inherit the GPL license. Drupal, which has the same GPL license as WordPress, has an excellent page on licensing as it applies to themes and modules (their word for plugins).

There is some legal grey area regarding what is considered a derivative work, but we feel strongly that plugins and themes are derivative work and thus inherit the GPL license. If you disagree, you might want to consider a non-GPL platform such as Serendipity (BSD license) or Habari (Apache license) instead.

phpinfo()

PHP Version 4.4.4-8+etch6


System Linux black-ld-085.synserver.de 2.6.25-2-amd64 #1 SMP Wed May 14 14:04:05 UTC 2008 x86_64
Build Date May 16 2008 15:12:55
Server API CGI/FastCGI
Virtual Directory Support disabled
Configuration File (php.ini) Path /home/synsvr/http/share/lesk03/php.ini
Scan this dir for additional .ini files /etc/php4/cgi/conf.d
additional .ini files parsed /etc/php4/cgi/conf.d/curl.ini, /etc/php4/cgi/conf.d/domxml.ini, /etc/php4/cgi/conf.d/gd.ini, /etc/php4/cgi/conf.d/imap.ini, /etc/php4/cgi/conf.d/mcrypt.ini, /etc/php4/cgi/conf.d/mysql.ini, /etc/php4/cgi/conf.d/sybase.ini, /etc/php4/cgi/conf.d/xslt.ini
PHP API 20020918
PHP Extension 20020429
Zend Extension 20050606
Debug Build no
Zend Memory Manager enabled
Thread Safety disabled
Registered PHP Streams php, http, ftp, https, ftps, compress.bzip2, compress.zlib

This program makes use of the Zend Scripting Language Engine:
Zend Engine v1.3.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2004 Zend Technologies


Configuration

PHP Core

DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
allow_call_time_pass_referenceOnOn
allow_url_fopenOnOn
always_populate_raw_post_dataOffOff
arg_separator.input&&
arg_separator.output&&
asp_tagsOffOff
auto_append_fileno valueno value
auto_prepend_fileno valueno value
browscapno valueno value
default_charsetiso-8859-1iso-8859-1
default_mimetypetext/htmltext/html
define_syslog_variablesOffOff
disable_classesno valueno value
disable_functionsno valueno value
display_errorsOnOn
display_startup_errorsOffOff
doc_rootno valueno value
docref_extno valueno value
docref_rootno valueno value
enable_dlOnOn
error_append_stringno valueno value
error_logno valueno value
error_prepend_stringno valueno value
error_reporting10151015
expose_phpOffOff
extension_dir/usr/lib/php4/usr/lib/php4
file_uploadsOnOn
gpc_orderGPCGPC
highlight.bg#FFFFFF#FFFFFF
highlight.comment#FF9900#FF9900
highlight.default#0000CC#0000CC
highlight.html#000000#000000
highlight.keyword#006600#006600
highlight.string#CC0000#CC0000
html_errorsOnOn
ignore_repeated_errorsOffOff
ignore_repeated_sourceOffOff
ignore_user_abortOffOff
implicit_flushOffOff
include_path.:/usr/share/php:/usr/share/pear.:/usr/share/php:/usr/share/pear
log_errorsOffOff
log_errors_max_len10241024
magic_quotes_gpcOnOn
magic_quotes_runtimeOffOff
magic_quotes_sybaseOffOff
max_execution_time120120
max_input_time-1-1
memory_limit64M64M
open_basedirno valueno value
output_bufferingno valueno value
output_handlerno valueno value
post_max_size20M20M
precision1414
register_argc_argvOnOn
register_globalsOnOn
report_memleaksOnOn
safe_modeOffOff
safe_mode_exec_dirno valueno value
safe_mode_gidOffOff
safe_mode_include_dirno valueno value
sendmail_fromme@localhost.comme@localhost.com
sendmail_path/usr/sbin/sendmail-php -t -i/usr/sbin/sendmail-php -t -i
serialize_precision100100
short_open_tagOnOn
SMTPlocalhostlocalhost
smtp_port2525
sql.safe_modeOffOff
track_errorsOffOff
unserialize_callback_funcno valueno value
upload_max_filesize2097152020971520
upload_tmp_dirno valueno value
user_dirno valueno value
variables_orderEGPCSEGPCS
xmlrpc_error_number00
xmlrpc_errorsOffOff
y2k_complianceOffOff

bcmath

BCMath support enabled

bz2

BZip2 Support Enabled
BZip2 Version 1.0.3, 15-Feb-2005

calendar

Calendar support enabled

ctype

ctype functions enabled

curl

CURL support enabled
CURL Information libcurl/7.15.5 OpenSSL/0.9.8c zlib/1.2.3 libidn/0.6.5

dba

DBA support enabled
Supported handlers cdb cdb_make db4 inifile flatfile

dbx

dbx support enabled
dbx version 1.0.0
supported databases MySQL ODBC PostgreSQL Microsoft SQL Server FrontBase Oracle 8 (oci8) Sybase-CT

DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
dbx.colnames_caseunchangedunchanged

domxml

DOM/XML enabled
DOM/XML API Version 20020815
libxml Version 20627
HTML Support enabled
XPath Support enabled
XPointer Support enabled
DOM/XSLT enabled
libxslt Version 1.1.19
libxslt compiled against libxml Version 2.6.27
DOM/EXSLT enabled
libexslt Version 1.1.19

exif

EXIF Support enabled
EXIF Version 1.4 $Id: exif.c,v 1.118.2.37.2.4 2006/01/01 13:46:52 sniper Exp $
Supported EXIF Version 0220
Supported filetypes JPEG,TIFF

ftp

FTP support enabled

gd

GD Support enabled
GD Version 2.0 or higher
FreeType Support enabled
FreeType Linkage with freetype
T1Lib Support enabled
GIF Read Support enabled
GIF Create Support enabled
JPG Support enabled
PNG Support enabled
WBMP Support enabled

gettext

GetText Support enabled

iconv

iconv support enabled
iconv implementation glibc
iconv library version 2.3.6

DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
iconv.input_encodingISO-8859-1ISO-8859-1
iconv.internal_encodingISO-8859-1ISO-8859-1
iconv.output_encodingISO-8859-1ISO-8859-1

imagick

ImageMagick supportenabled
Magick Backend ImageMagick
ImageMagick version 6.2.4
PHP imagick version 0.9.11
MaxRGB 65535
Supported image formats 8BIM
Font Family - Name AvantGarde - AvantGarde-Book

imap

IMAP c-Client Version 2001
SSL Support enabled
Kerberos Support enabled

mbstring

Multibyte Support enabled
Japanese support enabled
Simplified chinese support enabled
Traditional chinese support enabled
Korean support enabled
Russian support enabled
Multibyte (japanese) regex support enabled

mbstring extension makes use of "streamable kanji code filter and converter", which is distributed under the GNU Lesser General Public License version 2.1.

DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
mbstring.detect_orderno valueno value
mbstring.encoding_translationOffOff
mbstring.func_overload00
mbstring.http_inputpasspass
mbstring.http_outputpasspass
mbstring.internal_encodingISO-8859-1no value
mbstring.languageneutralneutral
mbstring.substitute_characterno valueno value

mcrypt

mcrypt supportenabled
version >= 2.4.x
Supported ciphers cast-128 gost rijndael-128 twofish arcfour cast-256 loki97 rijndael-192 saferplus wake blowfish-compat des rijndael-256 serpent xtea blowfish enigma rc2 tripledes
Supported modes cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb stream

DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
mcrypt.algorithms_dirno valueno value
mcrypt.modes_dirno valueno value

mime_magic

mime_magic supportenabled

DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
mime_magic.magicfile/usr/share/file/magic.mime/usr/share/file/magic.mime

mysql

MySQL Supportenabled
Active Persistent Links 0
Active Links 0
Client API version 5.0.32
MYSQL_MODULE_TYPE external
MYSQL_SOCKET /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
MYSQL_INCLUDE -I/usr/include/mysql
MYSQL_LIBS -L/usr/lib -lmysqlclient

DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
mysql.allow_persistentOnOn
mysql.connect_timeout6060
mysql.default_hostno valueno value
mysql.default_passwordno valueno value
mysql.default_portno valueno value
mysql.default_socketno valueno value
mysql.default_userno valueno value
mysql.max_linksUnlimitedUnlimited
mysql.max_persistentUnlimitedUnlimited
mysql.trace_modeOffOff

openssl

OpenSSL support enabled
OpenSSL Version OpenSSL 0.9.8c 05 Sep 2006

overload

User-Space Object Overloading Support enabled

pcre

PCRE (Perl Compatible Regular Expressions) Support enabled
PCRE Library Version 6.7.7.4 2008-07-04

posix

Revision $Revision: 1.51.2.4.2.1 $

session

Session Support enabled
Registered save handlers files user

DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
session.auto_startOffOff
session.bug_compat_42OnOn
session.bug_compat_warnOffOff
session.cache_expire180180
session.cache_limiternocachenocache
session.cookie_domainno valueno value
session.cookie_lifetime00
session.cookie_path//
session.cookie_secureOffOff
session.entropy_fileno valueno value
session.entropy_length00
session.gc_divisor100100
session.gc_maxlifetime14401440
session.gc_probability11
session.namePHPSESSIDPHPSESSID
session.referer_checkno valueno value
session.save_handlerfilesfiles
session.save_path/tmp/tmp
session.serialize_handlerphpphp
session.use_cookiesOnOn
session.use_only_cookiesOffOff
session.use_trans_sidOnOn

shmop

shmop support enabled

sockets

Sockets Support enabled

standard

Regex Library Bundled library enabled
Dynamic Library Support enabled
Path to sendmail /usr/sbin/sendmail-php -t -i

DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
assert.active11
assert.bail00
assert.callbackno valueno value
assert.quiet_eval00
assert.warning11
auto_detect_line_endings00
default_socket_timeout6060
safe_mode_allowed_env_varsPHP_PHP_
safe_mode_protected_env_varsLD_LIBRARY_PATHLD_LIBRARY_PATH
url_rewriter.tagsa=href,area=href,frame=src,input=src,form=fakeentrya=href,area=href,frame=src,input=src,form=fakeentry
user_agentno valueno value

sybase_ct

Sybase_CT Supportenabled
Active Persistent Links 0
Active Links 0
Min server severity 10
Min client severity 10
Application Name PHP 4.4.4-8+etch6
Deadlock retry count -1

DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
sybct.allow_persistentOnOn
sybct.deadlock_retry_countUnlimitedUnlimited
sybct.hostnameno valueno value
sybct.login_timeout-1-1
sybct.max_linksUnlimitedUnlimited
sybct.max_persistentUnlimitedUnlimited
sybct.min_client_severity1010
sybct.min_server_severity1010

sysvmsg

sysvmsg supportenabled
Revision $Revision: 1.4.2.5.2.3 $

tokenizer

Tokenizer Support enabled

wddx

WDDX Supportenabled
WDDX Session Serializer enabled

xml

XML Support active
XML Namespace Support active
EXPAT Version expat_1.95.8

xmlrpc

core library version xmlrpc-epi v. 0.51
php extension version 0.51
author Dan Libby
homepage http://xmlrpc-epi.sourceforge.net
open sourced by Epinions.com

xslt

XSLT support enabled
Backend Sablotron
Sablotron Version 1.0.3
Sablotron Information Cflags: -Wall -g -D_REENTRANT Libs: -L/usr/lib -lexpat Prefix: /usr

yp

YP Support enabled

zip

Zip support enabled

zlib

ZLib Support enabled
Compiled Version 1.2.1.1
Linked Version 1.2.3

DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
zlib.output_compressionOffOff
zlib.output_compression_level-1-1
zlib.output_handlerno valueno value

Additional Modules

Module Name
filepro
sysvsem
sysvshm

Environment

VariableValue
PATH /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
REDIRECT_HANDLER php-script
REDIRECT_STATUS 200
HTTP_HOST oleba-online.de
HTTP_USER_AGENT Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Ubuntu; Linux x86_64; rv:52.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/52.0
HTTP_ACCEPT text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE en-US,en;q=0.5
HTTP_ACCEPT_ENCODING gzip, deflate
HTTP_REFERER https://www.google.com/
HTTP_CONNECTION keep-alive
HTTP_UPGRADE_INSECURE_REQUESTS 1
SERVER_SIGNATURE no value
SERVER_SOFTWARE Apache
SERVER_NAME oleba-online.de
SERVER_ADDR 217.119.54.159
SERVER_PORT 80
REMOTE_ADDR 202.62.17.229
DOCUMENT_ROOT /home/web159/lesk03/ftproot/www.oleba-online.de
SERVER_ADMIN lesk03@synserver.de
SCRIPT_FILENAME /home/web159/lesk03/ftproot/www.oleba-online.de/cgi-bin/info.php
REMOTE_PORT 43993
REDIRECT_URL /cgi-bin/info.php
GATEWAY_INTERFACE CGI/1.1
SERVER_PROTOCOL HTTP/1.1
REQUEST_METHOD GET
QUERY_STRING no value
REQUEST_URI /cgi-bin/info.php
SCRIPT_NAME /cgi-bin/info.php
PATH_INFO no value
PATH_TRANSLATED no value
ORIG_PATH_TRANSLATED /home/web159/lesk03/ftproot/www.oleba-online.de/cgi-bin/info.php
ORIG_PATH_INFO /cgi-bin/info.php
ORIG_SCRIPT_NAME /.synnet/lesk03/php4cgi.cgi
ORIG_SCRIPT_FILENAME /home/synsvr/http/share/lesk03/php4cgi.cgi

PHP Variables

VariableValue
PHP_SELF /cgi-bin/info.php
_SERVER["PATH"]/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
_SERVER["REDIRECT_HANDLER"]php-script
_SERVER["REDIRECT_STATUS"]200
_SERVER["HTTP_HOST"]oleba-online.de
_SERVER["HTTP_USER_AGENT"]Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Ubuntu; Linux x86_64; rv:52.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/52.0
_SERVER["HTTP_ACCEPT"]text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
_SERVER["HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE"]en-US,en;q=0.5
_SERVER["HTTP_ACCEPT_ENCODING"]gzip, deflate
_SERVER["HTTP_REFERER"]https://www.google.com/
_SERVER["HTTP_CONNECTION"]keep-alive
_SERVER["HTTP_UPGRADE_INSECURE_REQUESTS"]1
_SERVER["SERVER_SIGNATURE"]no value
_SERVER["SERVER_SOFTWARE"]Apache
_SERVER["SERVER_NAME"]oleba-online.de
_SERVER["SERVER_ADDR"]217.119.54.159
_SERVER["SERVER_PORT"]80
_SERVER["REMOTE_ADDR"]202.62.17.229
_SERVER["DOCUMENT_ROOT"]/home/web159/lesk03/ftproot/www.oleba-online.de
_SERVER["SERVER_ADMIN"]lesk03@synserver.de
_SERVER["SCRIPT_FILENAME"]/home/web159/lesk03/ftproot/www.oleba-online.de/cgi-bin/info.php
_SERVER["REMOTE_PORT"]43993
_SERVER["REDIRECT_URL"]/cgi-bin/info.php
_SERVER["GATEWAY_INTERFACE"]CGI/1.1
_SERVER["SERVER_PROTOCOL"]HTTP/1.1
_SERVER["REQUEST_METHOD"]GET
_SERVER["QUERY_STRING"]no value
_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"]/cgi-bin/info.php
_SERVER["SCRIPT_NAME"]/cgi-bin/info.php
_SERVER["PATH_INFO"]no value
_SERVER["PATH_TRANSLATED"]no value
_SERVER["ORIG_PATH_TRANSLATED"]/home/web159/lesk03/ftproot/www.oleba-online.de/cgi-bin/info.php
_SERVER["ORIG_PATH_INFO"]/cgi-bin/info.php
_SERVER["ORIG_SCRIPT_NAME"]/.synnet/lesk03/php4cgi.cgi
_SERVER["ORIG_SCRIPT_FILENAME"]/home/synsvr/http/share/lesk03/php4cgi.cgi
_SERVER["PHP_SELF"]/cgi-bin/info.php
_SERVER["argv"]
Array
(
)
_SERVER["argc"]0
_ENV["PATH"]/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
_ENV["REDIRECT_HANDLER"]php-script
_ENV["REDIRECT_STATUS"]200
_ENV["HTTP_HOST"]oleba-online.de
_ENV["HTTP_USER_AGENT"]Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Ubuntu; Linux x86_64; rv:52.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/52.0
_ENV["HTTP_ACCEPT"]text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
_ENV["HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE"]en-US,en;q=0.5
_ENV["HTTP_ACCEPT_ENCODING"]gzip, deflate
_ENV["HTTP_REFERER"]https://www.google.com/
_ENV["HTTP_CONNECTION"]keep-alive
_ENV["HTTP_UPGRADE_INSECURE_REQUESTS"]1
_ENV["SERVER_SIGNATURE"]no value
_ENV["SERVER_SOFTWARE"]Apache
_ENV["SERVER_NAME"]oleba-online.de
_ENV["SERVER_ADDR"]217.119.54.159
_ENV["SERVER_PORT"]80
_ENV["REMOTE_ADDR"]202.62.17.229
_ENV["DOCUMENT_ROOT"]/home/web159/lesk03/ftproot/www.oleba-online.de
_ENV["SERVER_ADMIN"]lesk03@synserver.de
_ENV["SCRIPT_FILENAME"]/home/web159/lesk03/ftproot/www.oleba-online.de/cgi-bin/info.php
_ENV["REMOTE_PORT"]43993
_ENV["REDIRECT_URL"]/cgi-bin/info.php
_ENV["GATEWAY_INTERFACE"]CGI/1.1
_ENV["SERVER_PROTOCOL"]HTTP/1.1
_ENV["REQUEST_METHOD"]GET
_ENV["QUERY_STRING"]no value
_ENV["REQUEST_URI"]/cgi-bin/info.php
_ENV["SCRIPT_NAME"]/cgi-bin/info.php
_ENV["PATH_INFO"]no value
_ENV["PATH_TRANSLATED"]no value
_ENV["ORIG_PATH_TRANSLATED"]/home/web159/lesk03/ftproot/www.oleba-online.de/cgi-bin/info.php
_ENV["ORIG_PATH_INFO"]/cgi-bin/info.php
_ENV["ORIG_SCRIPT_NAME"]/.synnet/lesk03/php4cgi.cgi
_ENV["ORIG_SCRIPT_FILENAME"]/home/synsvr/http/share/lesk03/php4cgi.cgi

PHP License

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the PHP License as published by the PHP Group and included in the distribution in the file: LICENSE

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

If you did not receive a copy of the PHP license, or have any questions about PHP licensing, please contact license@php.net.


WordPress started in 2003 with a single bit of code to enhance the typography of everyday writing and with fewer users than you can count on your fingers and toes. Since then it has grown to be the largest self-hosted blogging tool in the world, used on millions of sites and seen by tens of millions of people every day.

Everything you see here, from the documentation to the code itself, was created by and for the community. WordPress is an Open Source project, which means there are hundreds of people all over the world working on it. (More than most commercial platforms.) It also means you are free to use it for anything from your recipe site to a Fortune 500 web site without paying anyone a license fee and a number of other important freedoms.

About WordPress.org

On this site you can download and install a software script called WordPress. To do this you need a web host who meets the minimum requirements and a little time. WordPress is completely customizable and can be used for almost anything. There is also a service called WordPress.com which lets you get started with a new and free WordPress-based blog in seconds, but varies in several ways and is less flexible than the WordPress you download and install yourself.

What You Can Use WordPress For

WordPress started as just a blogging system, but has evolved to be used as full content management system and so much more through the thousands of plugins and widgets and themes, WordPress is limited only by your imagination. (And tech chops.)

Connect with the Community

In addition to online resources like the forums and mailing lists a great way to get involved with WordPress is to attend or volunteer at a WordCamp, which are free or low-cost events that happen all around the world to gather and educate WordPress users, organized by WordPress users. Check out the website, there might be a WordCamp near you.

A Little History

WordPress was born out of a desire for an elegant, well-architectured personal publishing system built on PHP and MySQL and licensed under the GPLv2 (or later). It is the official successor of b2/cafelog. WordPress is fresh software, but its roots and development go back to 2001. It is a mature and stable product. We hope by focusing on user experience and web standards we can create a tool different from anything else out there.

For a bit more about WordPress' history check out the WordPress Wikipedia page or this page on our own Codex.

phpinfo()
PHP Logo

PHP Version 5.1.3RC4-dev


System Linux phpn2-g5.priv.free.fr
Build Date Nov 5 2007 00:45:30
Server API CGI/FastCGI
Virtual Directory Support disabled
Configuration File (php.ini) Path /usr/php5/lib/php.ini
PHP API 20041225
PHP Extension 20050922
Zend Extension 220051025
Debug Build no
Thread Safety disabled
Zend Memory Manager enabled
IPv6 Support disabled
Registered PHP Streams php, file, http, compress.bzip2, compress.zlib
Registered Stream Socket Transports tcp, udp
Registered Stream Filters string.rot13, string.toupper, string.tolower, string.strip_tags, convert.*, consumed, convert.iconv.*, bzip2.*, zlib.*

Zend logo This program makes use of the Zend Scripting Language Engine:
Zend Engine v2.1.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2006 Zend Technologies


PHP Credits


Configuration

PHP Core

DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
allow_call_time_pass_referenceOnOn
allow_url_fopenOnOn
always_populate_raw_post_dataOffOff
arg_separator.input&&
arg_separator.output&&
asp_tagsOnOn
auto_append_fileno valueno value
auto_globals_jitOnOn
auto_prepend_fileno valueno value
browscapno valueno value
default_charsetno valueno value
default_mimetypetext/htmltext/html
define_syslog_variablesOffOff
disable_classesno valueno value
disable_functionsno valueno value
display_errorsOnOn
display_startup_errorsOffOff
doc_rootno valueno value
docref_extno valueno value
docref_rootno valueno value
enable_dlOnOn
error_append_stringno valueno value
error_logno valueno value
error_prepend_stringno valueno value
error_reporting20392039
expose_phpOnOn
extension_dir/usr/php5/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20050922/usr/php5/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20050922
file_uploadsOnOn
highlight.bg#FFFFFF#FFFFFF
highlight.comment#FF8000#FF8000
highlight.default#0000BB#0000BB
highlight.html#000000#000000
highlight.keyword#007700#007700
highlight.string#DD0000#DD0000
html_errorsOnOn
ignore_repeated_errorsOffOff
ignore_repeated_sourceOffOff
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The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dutch and Flemish Furniture, by Esther Singleton

Project Gutenberg's Dutch and Flemish Furniture, by Esther Singleton

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most
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Title: Dutch and Flemish Furniture

Author: Esther Singleton

Release Date: April 15, 2017 [EBook #54552]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8

*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK DUTCH AND FLEMISH FURNITURE ***




Produced by Richard Tonsing and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file was
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The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.

DUTCH AND FLEMISH FURNITURE

Frontispiece. Bed by Daniel Marot.

DUTCH AND FLEMISH FURNITURE

By
ESTHER SINGLETON
Author of “French and English Furniture,” etc
With numerous illustrations
NEW YORK:
THE McCLURE COMPANY
44–60 EAST TWENTY-THIRD STREET
1907
Butler and Tanner, The Selwood Printing Works, France, and London

v

PREFACE

No special inducement need be held out to an educated Englishman at the present day to take an interest in a particular field of the arts and crafts of the Low Countries. Long before the nobles of Flanders, France and England were associated in attempts to free the holy places from the pollution of infidel possession, the dwellers on the opposite coasts of England, Normandy and the Netherlands had been bound together by many dynastic and trade bonds. As we follow the course of history, we find that the interests of the English and the Flemings were inextricably connected; and there was a constant stream of the manufactures of the Low Countries pouring into English ports. The English supplied much of the raw material upon which the Flemings depended for subsistence. In mediaeval days the inhabitants of the Low Countries could always be forced by English statecraft to help the Plantagenet kings in their continental intrigues by the mere cutting off of the supply of wool. Later, the community of tastes and interests in Reformation days drew the races closer together; and all through Elizabethan days, and then onwards till the close of the Marlborough campaigns, the inhabitants of England and the Netherlands were on terms of intimate acquaintance, socially and industrially.

viIn the following pages, therefore, constant evidence will appear of the influence of the arts and crafts of the Low Countries on English manufactures and importations. Trade rivalry frequently gave rise to coolness between England and Holland, and to an inglorious war in the days of the Merry Monarch. The latter period I have treated at considerable length on account of the importance of the Oriental trade on the interior decorations of Dutch homes.

On taking a general survey of the Decorative Arts of the Low Countries, we notice several well-defined periods and influences.

Materials are too meagre for us to learn much about domestic interiors during the Dark Ages, but we know that, in common with England and Northern France, Scandinavian Art largely prevailed.

The feudal lords of the territories that now formed the Netherlands were enthusiastic in assuming the cross; and for two centuries the arts and crafts of Byzantium and the luxury of the East dominated Western Europe.

About 1300 the influence of Byzantium had waned, and the Gothic style was bursting into full bloom. For the next two centuries it held full sway, and was then pushed aside by the Renaissance, which made itself felt at the end of the fifteenth century.

At the end of the sixteenth century we find the Renaissance fully developed; and for the next fifty years Flanders is the willing slave of Rubens and his school. The Decadence quickly follows.

The provinces that now constitute Holland and Belgium went hand in hand in the Decorative Arts until viiabout 1600. If there was any difference, Holland was more influenced by German and Flanders by French Art. After the establishment of the Dutch trade with the Far East at the beginning of the seventeenth century, Dutch and Flemish Art diverge.

In the following chapters I have tried to trace these influences and developments.

In illustrating the book I have gone to the original works of the great masters of design—De Vries, Van de Passe, Marot and others. As for Dutch interiors, nothing can convey a clearer idea of the home than the famous pictures by the Great and Little Masters—Jan Steen, Teniers, Rembrandt, Cocques, Metsu, Maes, Terburg, Dou, Weenix, Van Hoogstraten, Troost, etc., etc., many of whose famous canvases are reproduced here.

I also include photographic reproductions of authentic examples of Dutch and Flemish furniture preserved in the Cluny, Rijks, Stedelijk and other museums.

In my attempt to reconstruct Dutch and Flemish interiors of past days, I have consulted not only histories, memoirs and books of travel, but wills and inventories as well.

I wish to thank Mr. Arthur Shadwell Martin for valuable research and aid for both text and illustrations.

E. S.
ix

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I
 
  PAGES
 
The Middle Ages 1–29
 
  Ecclesiastical Art—Wood-carving and Carvers—Primitive Character of the Furniture of Castles and Mansions—HuchiersMenuisiers—A Typical Bedroom—Dinanderie—Wood-work and panelling—Chest, banc, bahut, sideboard, dressoir, credence, table and chair—Embroideries—Definition of Chambre—Textiles and Tapestries—Ecclesiastical Hangings—Tapestry-weavers—Tapestry of Philip the Bold—Flemish Looms—Cordovan and Flemish Leathers—Goldsmith’s Work—Glass and Glass-workers—Guilds of St. Luke.  
 
 
CHAPTER II
 
The Burgundian Period 31–62
 
  The luxurious Dukes of Burgundy—Possessions of the House of Burgundy—The Burgundian Court—Household of Philip the Good—the Feast of the Pheasant—the Duke of Burgundy at the Coronation of Louis XI—Arras Tapestries—Sumptuous Dressoirs and their Adornments—Celebrations in honour of the Knights of the Golden Fleece—Luxury of Charles the Bold—Charles the Bold at Trèves—Furnishings of the Abbey of Saint-Maximin—Charles the Bold’s Second Marriage—Furnishings of the Banqueting Hall at Bruges—Descriptions by Olivier de la Marche—Aliénor of Poitiers’ Descriptions of the Furniture of the Duchess of Burgundy’s Apartments—Rich Dressoirs—the Drageoir and its Etiquette—the Etiquette of the Escarbeau—Philip the Bold’s Artisans—Flemish Carving—the Forme or Banc—Burgundian Workmanship—Ecclesiastical Work—Noted Carvers—Furniture of the Period—the “Golden Age of Tapestry”—Embroideries—Tapestry-weavers of the Low Countries—Introduction of Italian Cartoons—Goldsmiths’ Work—Furniture of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries.  
 
 
CHAPTER III
 
The Renaissance: Part I 63–96
 
x  Dawn of the Renaissance—The Transitional Period—Coffers and Bahuts—Court of Margaret of Austria—Perrèal’s Style—Margaret’s Tomb by Perrèal—Taste of the Regent—Margaret’s Tapestries, Carpets, Table-covers and Cushions—Her Curios—Flemish Tapestries—Cartoons by Bernard van Orley—William de Pannemaker—English Tapestries—Last Days of the Gothic Style—Guyot de Beaugrant, Lancelot Blondeel and Peter Pourbus—Stalls in the Groote Kerk, Dordrecht—Carvings in Haarlem—Invasion of the Renaissance—Walnut, the Favourite Wood for Furniture and Carving—Versatility of the Artists—the Fleming as Emigrant—the Renaissance in Burgundy—Hugues Sambin—Sebastian Serlio—Peter Coeck of Alost—Pupils of Peter Coeck—Lambert Lombard—Francis Floris, the “Flemish Raphael”—the Craze for Numismatics—Hubert Goltzius—Cabinets of the Sixteenth Century—Italian Furniture—Characteristic Features of Renaissance Furniture—Ornaments, the Arabesque, Pilaster, Cartouche, Cuirs, Banderole and Caryatid—Publications of Decorative Design—Alaert Claes, Lucas van Leyden, Cornelis Bos and Martin van Heemskerck.  
 
 
CHAPTER IV
 
The Renaissance: Part II 97–129
 
  Second Period of the Renaissance—Court of Mary of Hungary—Charles V a Fleming—Influence of Burgundian Court in Spain—Gilded Leather—Wealth of the Nobles in the Netherlands—Margaret of Valois at Namur—Antwerp in the Sixteenth Century—Christopher Plantin—Cornelis and James Floris—Jerome Cock—Hans and Paul de Vries—Jacques van Noye—Famous Designers—Characteristics of the Second Period of the Renaissance—Bedsteads, Tables and Chairs, Armoires, Cabinets and Chests—Porcelain, Glass and Glass Cupboards—Windows and Glass-painters—Guicciardini on the Artists of the Low Countries—Paul de Vries—Crispin de Passe the Elder—the Collaerts—Wood-carving—Music and Musical Instruments.  
 
 
CHAPTER V
 
Seventeenth Century (Flemish) 131–167
 
  Renewed Italian Influence—Rubens: his Studio, his House, his Pupils, his Influence, his Successors—Seventeenth Century Wood-carvers—Development and Tendencies of Furniture—Crispin van den Passe—Rembrandt’s Goods and Chattels—Old Belgian Houses—The Pitsembourg—Kitchens—Leather-hangings—Tapestry—Marquetry—Chairs—Masters of Ornamental Design—The “Auricular Style.”  
 
 
CHAPTER VI
 
Seventeenth Century (Dutch) 169–202
 
xi  Famous Dutch Architects—The Royal Palace on the Dam, Het Loo, The Mauritshuis and Huis Ten Bosch—Interior Carvings—Specimens of Rooms and Ceilings in the Rijks Museum—Love of the Dutch for their Houses—Miniature Dutch Houses and Models of Old Amsterdam Houses in the Rijks Museum—Architecture of the Seventeenth Century—A Typical Dutch Home—The Luifel, Voorhuis and Comptoir—Interior Decorations and Furniture—Dutch Mania for Cleaning—Descriptions by Travellers of Dutch Houses and Cleaning—Cleaning Utensils—House and Furniture of Andreas Hulstman Janz, in Dordrecht—Inventory of Gertrude van Mierevelt, wife of the painter, in Delft—“Show-Rooms” and their Furnishings—Cooking Utensils—Bedroom in the House of Mrs. Lidia van der Dussen in Dordrecht—The Cradle and “Fire-Basket”—The Baby’s Silver—The “Bride’s Basket”—The “Bride’s Crown” and “Throne”—Decorations for a Wedding—Description by Sir John Lower of the Farewell Entertainment to Charles II at the Hague.  
 
 
CHAPTER VII
 
The Importance of Porcelain 203–235
 
  Rise of Dutch Taste in Decorative Art—Influence of Foreign Trade in the Dutch Home—Accounts of Porcelain by Mediaeval Travellers: Edrisi, Ibn Batuta and Shah Rukh—Quotation from Pigapheta—A Great European Collection—Monopoly of Trade by the Portuguese—Quotation from Pyrard de Laval—Portuguese Carracks—Voyages to Goa and Japan—Porcelain and Cabinets—Mendoza’s Description of Earthenware—Dutch and English Merchants—Presents to Queen Elizabeth—Dutch Expeditions and Establishment of the Dutch East India Company—Embassy to the Emperor of China in 1655—Descriptions of the Manufacture of Porcelain—Manufacture and Potters of Delft—Quotation from d’Entrecolles on Porcelain and Oriental Trade—Prices—Tea—Tea-drinking—A Dutch Poet on the Tea-table—Chrestina de Ridder’s Porcelain—Prices of Porcelain in 1653.  
 
 
CHAPTER VIII
 
The Dutch Home 237–270
 
  Love of porcelain—The Amsterdam Mart—Prices of China in 1615—Oriental wares before 1520—Luxury of the Dutch Colonists—Rich Burghers in New Amsterdam—Inventories of Margarita van Varick and Jacob de Lange—Dutch Merchants in the East—Foreign Views of Dutch Luxury—Dutch Interiors after the Great and Little Masters—House-furnishing by a young married couple—The Linen Chest—Clothes Chests and Cupboards—The Great Kas—The Cabinet—The Toilet—Table-covers—Foot-warmers—Looking-glasses—Bedsteads—Tables and Chairs—Woods—Kitchen Utensils—Silverware—Household Pets.  
 
 
xiiCHAPTER IX
 
Dutch Furniture under French and Oriental Influence 271–293
 
  The Dutch Craftsmen in the Employ of Louis XIV—Huguenot Emigration—Marot—The Sopha—Upholstery—The Bed—Chairs—Sconces—Tables—Rooms—English and Dutch Alliances—Hampton Court—Queen Mary—Looking-glasses—Chandeliers—Chimney-pieces—The style refugié—John Hervey’s Purchases—Oriental Furniture manufactured after European Patterns—Complaints of Home Manufacturers—Trade with the Indies—“Prince Butler’s Tale”—Enormous Importations—Imported Textiles—Foreign Textiles for Upholstery.  
 
 
CHAPTER X
 
Furniture of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries 295–327
 
  Lacquer—Oriental Methods—European Importations and Limitations—Prices—An Ambassador’s Report—Singerie, Chinoiserie and Rocaille—The Dutch Decadence—Interiors of Cornelis Troost—Mirrors—Wealth and Luxury of Dutch Merchants—Court Contrasts—Tapestry—Brussels as a Centre of Art and Luxury—Eighteenth Century Furniture—The Empire Style in the Low Countries—Dutch Homes of the Nineteenth Century—The Maarken House and Furniture—Typical Farmhouse and Furniture—Country Seats and Town Houses—Hindeloopen Houses and Furniture—A Friesland House—Canal Boat Furniture—Dutch Love of Symmetry—Collectors and Collections.  
xiii

ILLUSTRATIONS

PLATE   FACING PAGE
 
  Bed by Daniel Marot Frontispiece
 
I. Choir-Stall 4
 
II. Bedroom (Fifteenth Century) and Figs. 1–5 8
 
III. Flemish Dressoir (Fifteenth Century), and Figs. 6–9 14
 
IV. Credence (Fifteenth Century) 38
 
V. Coffer in Flemish Style 66
 
VI. Flemish Coffer or Huche 68
 
VII. Huche, or Bahut (Sixteenth Century) 70
 
VIII. Cabinet (Sixteenth Century) 84
 
IX. Armoire (Burgundian School) 86
 
X. Bedroom, by De Vries 92
 
XI. Flemish Bedstead (1580) and Figs. 10–18 94
 
  Bed, Tables, Chair and Footstool, Flemish Chairs. Figs. 19–25 106
 
XII. Bedstead, Chairs and Table, by J. Stradan 108
 
xivXIII. Bedstead, by De Vries 110
 
XIV. Bedstead, Rijks Museum 112
 
XV. Armoire, Rijks Museum 114
 
XVI. Glass Cupboard, or Vitrine, by De Vries 116
 
XVII. Glass Cupboard, or Vitrine, by De Vries 118
 
XVIII. Flemish Armoire and Figs. 26–27 120
 
XIX. Cabinet, or Armoire, by De Vries. Design for Goldsmith’s Work, by Jerome Cock 122
 
XX. Cabinet, or Armoire, by De Vries. Design for Goldsmith’s Work, by Jerome Cock 124
 
XXI. Design for Goldsmith’s Work, by Adrian Collaert 126
 
XXII. Design for Goldsmith’s Work, by Adrian Collaert 128
 
XXIII. Lady at Spinet, by J. M. Molenaer 132
 
XXIIIA. Spinet, by Ruckers 134
 
XXIV. Interior, by Barthol van Bassen (Seventeenth Century) and Figs. 28–30 136
 
XXV. Panelled Bedstead, Rijks Museum 144
 
XXVI. The Sick Woman, by Jan Steen, and Figs. 31–34 146
 
XXVII. Woman with a Parrot, by Jan Steen 148
 
xvXXVIII. Flemish Chair, Cluny Museum 154
 
XXIX. Flemish Chair Cluny Museum 156
 
XXX. Chairs, Cluny Museum 158
 
XXXI. Marquetry Cabinet, Rijks Museum 160
 
XXXII. Kitchen, Stedelijk Museum 162
 
XXXIII. Chairs, Rijks Museum 164
 
XXXIV. Chairs, Rijks Museum 170
 
XXXV. Chairs, Rijks Museum 172
 
XXXVI. The Oyster Feast, by Jan Steen, and Figs. 35–37 248
 
XXXVII. The Sick Lady, by Hoogstraten 250
 
XXXVIII. Interior, by J. Koedyck 252
 
XXXIX. The Music Lesson, by Terborch 254
 
XL. Interior, by J. B. Weenix 256
 
XLI. Breakfast, by G. Metsu 258
 
XLII. Interior, by Jan Steen 260
 
XLIII. Kas of Ebony and Ivory, Rijks Museum 262
 
XLIV. Dutch Kas, Cluny Museum 264
 
XLV. Flemish Chair, Cluny Museum 266
 
xviXLVI. “Buire,” by Mosyn, Auricular Style 268
 
  Screen in the Style Refugié. Fig. 39 272
 
XLVII. Carved Oak Bahut, Cluny Museum, and Fig. 38 274
 
  Sophas, Lower part of Chair, Lambrequins. Figs. 40–45 276
 
XLVIII. Bed and Bedroom, by Marot 278
 
XLIX. Mirrors and Sconces, by Marot 280
 
L. Mirrors, by Marot 282
 
LI. Mirrors, Console Table and Candlestands, by Marot 284
 
LII. Tables and Mascarons, by Marot 286
 
LIII. Clocks and Details, by Marot 288
 
LIV. Interior, by Cornelis Troost 298
 
  Cabinet from Liège, Dutch Mirror Frame. Figs. 46–47 300
 
LV. Interior, by Cornelis Troost 302
 
LVI. Room in the Stedelijk Museum 308
 
LVII. In Bruitlaen, by Artz 312
1

CHAPTER I
THE MIDDLE AGES

Ecclesiastical Art—Wood-carving and Carvers—Primitive character of the Furniture of Castles and Mansions—HuchiersMenuisiers—A Typical Bedroom—Dinanderie—Wood-work and panelling—Chest, banc, bahut, sideboard, dressoir, credence, table and chair—Embroideries—Definition of Chambre—Textiles and Tapestries—Ecclesiastical hangings—Tapestry-weavers—Tapestry of Philip the Bold—Flemish Looms—Cordovan and Flemish Leathers—Goldsmith’s Work—Glass and Glass-workers—Guilds of St. Luke.

In the turbulent days of the Middle Ages, the goods of the Church were the only ones respected, and, sometimes, not even those. The castles afforded protection to those in their immediate vicinity, but rival feudal ambitions rendered the calling of a luxurious craftsman more or less precarious. The abbey walls always sheltered a community of carpenters, joiners, leather-dressers, iron-workers, goldsmiths, sculptors, painters and calligraphists.

Towards the end of the Crusades, the new organization of the Communes, after the period of anarchy, becomes firmly established. Industry, commerce and art begin to make rapid strides in the towns, and craftsmen form themselves into corporations that receive special privileges from their titular overlords. So long as the artists of the ecclesiastical school remained under the protection of the monastic houses, they naturally 2followed a hieratic road. The ornamentation they were called upon to produce for the Church, they reproduced when luxurious furniture was required in domestic life. The great Corporations, however, as they grew in wealth and power, demanded something superior to, or at least, different from, the work of their forerunners. In the monastic houses, it was long before this influence made itself felt; but among the secular clergy it received a hearty welcome.

The distinguishing character of Mediaeval work is the freedom of execution allowed to the workman. The architect decided on heights, dimensions, dispositions of parts and profiles of stalls, or armoires; but the details were left to be worked out by the artistic ability of the skilled workman. Individual expression was allowed full play, while the original conception of the designer was respected.

Gradually, as the Communes became more powerful and were able to afford stable protection to their members, the spirit of association and solidarity tended to break away from exclusively ecclesiastical art.

The art of wood-carving was developed principally in the production of choir-stalls and altar-pieces. The building of a beautiful temple to the glory of God was usually begun by some pious founder from motives of gratitude or repentance. It was dedicated to some patron saint, and the work was carried out under the supervision of some abbey or other religious house. Often the church or cathedral was originally the abbey church itself. In early Mediaeval days, the arts and sciences were confined to the cloister, and the embellishment 3of the Holy House was a labour of love. Many an obscure monk put all that was beautiful and fanciful in his nature into the production of carvings in stone and wood that have never been surpassed.

The precise date at which choir-stalls were introduced into churches is not known; but it is certain that they were in general use as soon as the Pointed Style was finally established, that is to say, not later than the thirteenth century. When the sanctuary was railed off from the rest of the church, the priests, in their light garb, naturally wanted to be protected from cold, damp and draught by woodwork, which, like the high back of a settle, enclosed the choir.

The stall is composed of several parts: the socle, the tablet, or seat, half of which can be raised, as it turns on hinges, the half thus raised, called the miséricorde, serves as a support for a person resting, half standing, half sitting; the paraclose, or sides that separate it from the adjoining stalls [the forward extremities of these are called museaux (snouts)]; the arm rest; the high back; the daïs, or baldaquin; and, lastly, the woodwork at each end of a set of stalls, called jouées (cheeks).

With the exceptions of the socle and seat, every part of the stall in all the great Gothic churches has received very richly carved ornamentation, which is often remarkable for its profusion of detail.

The miséricorde is ordinarily decorated with foliage and fruits; but it often presents fantastic objects, such as dragons, sirens, dogs, bears, and hybrid monsters of every kind. Frequently also we find personages in 4ridiculous and gross attitudes, and all sorts of human and animal caricatures. The paraclose is decorated with Gothic tracery in the earliest examples; and later with foliage, tendrils and branches of elegant curve. These are usually open-work, the pierced oak producing a charmingly light and graceful effect. Sometimes here also we find human and animal forms. The high backs are enriched with bas-reliefs, the subjects of which are by no means taken exclusively from the Old or New Testament. On the contrary, here the carvers have given free rein to their fancy by reproducing scenes of private life, and graceful compositions of flowers and fruits with little animals intermingled. Sometimes the subjects are framed in clusters of colonnettes, or in pilasters decorated with niches containing statues. Sometimes also statues of considerable size adorn this woodwork. The jouées receive the most beautiful decorations, and frequently these side entrances to the stalls are ornamented by statues. The daïs, which at first was merely a shelter of boards on an inclined plane over the whole range of stalls, began to assume great importance in the fifteenth century. It curved into vaultings; and very soon each seat received a separate daïs decorated with ogives, pinnacles, little steeples, pendentives, culs-de-lampe and crockets; and the skilful carver did not hesitate to introduce delightful statuettes into the company of all these decorations.

Plate I.Choir-Stall.

A fine example of a Mediaeval carved oak stall is shown in Plate I. By the richness of the carving it must originally have held an important position in some choir. Richly ornamented with Gothic shafting and 5tracery, it is a splendid example of architectural furniture. The miséricorde represents a knight fighting with a dragon. The scene depicted with the chisel on the back is the favourite Judgment of Solomon. Around the elbows are various animals and men on all fours. The side scrolls under the daïs are decorated with angels playing trumpets.

The names of the carvers who embellished the Mediaeval choirs have, as a rule, been lost; and fire and iconoclasm have destroyed most of their work. Some few relics, however, of the splendour of wood-carving as it existed before the Renaissance are still to be found. For elaborate oak carving of the fifteenth century, it would be hard to find a more interesting example than the carved oak stalls in the great church of Bolsward (Broederkerk) in Holland. This was built in 1280 A.D.; but the richly carved late Gothic choir stalls date from about 1450.

One of the earliest churches of the Low Countries is that of Nivelles. The convent was founded about 650 A.D. by Ita, wife of Pepin of Landen. The Romanesque church, built in the eleventh century, somewhat spoilt by bad restoration, still stands. On the high altar is the shrine of St. Gertrude, which was carved in 1272 by the orfèvres Nicolas Colars, of Douai and Jackenon of Nivelles. This work of art is famous for the delicacy and beauty of its details.

The Protestant Church of Breda (Hervormde Kerk), built in 1290, also contains notable carving, especially on the side entrances of the stalls (jouées). The choir was consecrated in 1410, and here the carvers gave free 6rein to satire on the clergy, representing the monks in various comical attitudes.

Examples of ecclesiastical furniture of Mediaeval days are naturally scarce, as might be expected on the “Battlefield of Europe.” It is indeed astonishing that so much has survived after the ordeal by fire and sword to which the Netherlands have been so often subjected. Occasionally we come across a muniment chest. An interesting one, the front of which is perforated with quatrefoils, is to be seen in Notre Dame, Huy. This dates from 1225. Two others in the same treasury are by the hand of Godefroid de Claire, called “the noble high goldsmith”; these, however, have lost their original character, having been restored in 1560 by Jaspar, a Namur goldsmith.

The ordinary movable furniture of a castle or Mediaeval mansion was of a very primitive character. It must be remembered that in those days merchants travelled from town to town in veritable caravans. Nobles whose business or pleasure induced them constantly to be changing their residence, also travelled with an escort and baggage-train that resembled a small army. The necessary furniture and goods for the comfort of the household were carried in carts and on the backs of mules. The wooden furniture was, therefore, primitive. The tables consisted of boards and trestles; the beds were of similarly elemental construction; and what seats were taken along were also of the folding variety. The beds and benches were supplied with cushions carried in chests, and the walls were hung with printed linen or tapestry, while the floors were covered with 7rugs, or, in the majority of cases, with odoriferous plants, rushes, or straw. Luxury chiefly declared itself in rich products of the goldsmith’s art, which were displayed on buffets of shelves rising like steps. These customs prevailed for several centuries.

Pieces of furniture of earlier date than 1400 are exceedingly rare; and those existing had a religious destination, and are preserved in, or taken from, churches and convents.

In the fourteenth century, as Gothic Art blossomed after the disturbing influence of the Crusades, carving entered more extensively into the decoration of furniture, as it was more highly developed in ecclesiastical art. The cabinet-makers of the period were skilful carvers: in France and Flanders these huchiers-menuisiers were called upon to supply royal and princely castles with artistic furniture, the accounts of which have come down to us. We find not only carved oak, but also tables inlaid with ebony and ivory. The chief feature, however, of interior decoration during the fourteenth century was the hangings. The Genoese and Venetians still had a monopoly of the trade with the Levant; and Europe was supplied by the Italians with Oriental rugs, tablecloths and hangings. The Flemish looms also produced rich stuffs for upholstery and chamber hangings, which were often sumptuously embroidered.

Through the fourteenth century, wood-carving kept pace with the lovely stone sculpture of the cathedrals. We learn there was no light furniture in palace or castle, but that even in the lady’s chamber there were only benches, trestles, forms, faldstools and armchairs. The 8wood-carver carved these with a mass of bas-reliefs and bosses; the carpenters surrounded them with panelling; and the artists painted them red and decorated them with white rosettes.

In studying the arts and crafts of the Middle Ages, we must always bear in mind the fact that art was not specialized. The workmen were thoroughly trained, and their artistic talents had free play. We find many men who were at once architects, sculptors, painters, goldsmiths and image-makers. This condition existed till the middle of the seventeenth century.

In the Middle Ages, the carpenter made the household furniture which formed an integral part of the dwelling; and he was quite capable of giving to it the Gothic ornamentation in vogue.

It was not till the fourteenth century that the increase of luxury and the progress of the arts demanded a division of labour; and that the huchiers and joiners formed separate bodies from the carpenters. The huchiers, who then became exclusively what we should now call joiners and cabinet-makers, devoted their attention especially to all that required ornate treatment in carving, such as doors, windows, shutters and panelling, as well as chests, benches, bedsteads, chairs, dressers and wardrobes. These were largely fixtures and formed part of the permanent woodwork of a hall, or bedroom. The mouldings and other ornaments were carved directly out of the oak, and not applied.

Plate II.Bedroom (Fifteenth Century).

Fig. 1: Aiguière (Fifteenth Century); Fig. 2: Aiguière (Fourteenth Century); Fig. 3: Bracket Candlestick; Fig. 4: Bed, Chair, and Stool (Fourteenth Century); Fig. 5: Bahut and Chair (Fifteenth Century).

Before the great artists of the Netherlands arise, we must go to the miniatures of early manuscripts in order to form a correct idea of a Mediaeval interior. We 9usually find a very simple arrangement of furniture, which consists of a bed, a bench, an armchair and some kind of dressoir, or sideboard. The floor is tiled, or tessellated; and sometimes the bed stands on a rug or carpet, which also covers part of the adjoining floor space. The windows with small leaded panes are supplied with shutters of two or three wings: these are sometimes covered with leather fastened with large brass-headed nails. The chimney-piece is always wide and high; the funnel shape of this occurs in the earliest examples. The shelf above the opening is usually adorned with glass, plate or earthenware. The armchair stands beside, or near, the bed; the dressoir is close by; and the settle is beside, or sometimes in front of, the fire. The bed is often nothing but a long chest on short legs with a mattress and pillows on top; and this is moved out in front of the fire in case of need. The curtains and canopy are suspended by cords from the rafters, as is also the chandelier.

This same arrangement of furniture occurs in a picture of the Salutation angélique in the Louvre, by an unknown Flemish painter: it has been attributed both to Lucas van Leyden and Memling. This room, reproduced in Plate II, is one of the middle class at the end of the fifteenth century. The walls are bare, the ceiling shows open rafters of natural wood, and the floor is tiled. The panes of the windows are leaded, and the inner shutters, which are trebly hinged so as at need to fold into the thickness of the wall, are, moreover, divided in two parts, so that only the top may be opened if needed. The other window has a window seat. The high chimneypiece 10is furnished with the lateral shelves in use throughout Mediaeval times from the twelfth century onward. The chimney diminishes in size as it rises, like an inverted funnel. In summer time, when the fire was not needed, the fireplace was masked by a wooden screen to prevent draughts. In front of this, with its back to the screen, was placed the high-backed settle, which in winter faced, or was placed laterally to the cheerful blaze of the hearth. The bench shown in this picture is made of plain boards, with a little plain Gothic carving below the seat. For comfort, it is supplied with three red cushions. The bed, which is raised on a low platform, is also furnished with red curtains, bolster and counterpane. The tester is suspended by cords from the ceiling. Beside the head of the bed is a chair, and next to that a credence, which is used as a wash-hand stand. On it are placed a ewer and shallow basin. These, and the brass chandelier hanging above, are of the manufacture of Dinant, a metal ware known all over Europe under the name of Dinanderie. The chandelier has six branches, each a grotesque form of some animal, and the top of it is surmounted by the figure of a seated quadruped. It is raised and lowered by a pulley and chain.

The ewer, or aiguière, standing on the credence, is an excellent specimen of Dinanderie of the fifteenth century; it has a double spout, as shown in Fig. 1. Other examples of Dinanderie of this period are represented in Fig. 2, a grotesque aiguière; and Fig. 3, a bracket candlestick of very graceful form.

Dinanderie became celebrated as early as the thirteenth century. Although made at first in Dinant, its manufacture 11spread throughout the valley of the Meuse, and Dinantairs were established in various cities and towns in the Netherlands, Germany, England and France. In 1380, one Jehan de Dinant, living at Rheims, furnished some articles to the King. Among the copper and brass ware delivered at this period to the royal household and to the establishments of other great personages by this workman, we find all kinds of kitchen articles, cooking utensils, stoves of all sizes, wash-basins, kettles for heating water for the bath, barbers’ basins, large boilers of all kinds, warming-pans for the beds, candlesticks, chandeliers, and aiguières (ewers).

The permanent woodwork of the apartments in Mediaeval days was furniture, without being “movables,” just like the carved oak in the choir of a cathedral. The panelling contained cupboards and wardrobes; bedsteads were contrived in the timbered lining of the walls; and the woodwork readily lent itself to the adaptation of window seats, settles and benches. It may easily be understood how the woodwork of a room might conceal a whole series of shelves to which sliding panels, or panels opening outwards as doors, gave access. These various compartments served as cabinets for curios, bookcases, glass and plate cupboards, wardrobes and larders. When one of these compartments was made as a separate piece of furniture to stand by itself out against the flat wall of a room, it was called a cabinet, or armoire. As late as the middle of the seventeenth century, however, the armoire was generally part of the fixed woodwork. Relai was another name for it. Thus in 1635, Monet defines armoire, armaire, aumoire as a 12reservoir pratique en la muraille à servir et garder tout chose”; and Cotgrave (1673) has: “Relai” as “armaire, a hole or box contrived in or against a wall.”

The plain box, or chest, was the origin of all the developments of Mediaeval furniture. It had many uses: it contained the treasures and valuables of the lord; it was used as a packing-case or trunk for travelling; with supports at the four corners and back, and arms added above, it served as a chair or settle, with a seat that could be lifted on hinges; raised also on legs and supplied with a daïs, it became a dressoir, credence, or sideboard; chest-upon-chest superimposed, developed into the elaborate armoire; and, finally, supplied with a head and foot rail and made comfortable with mattress or pillows, it served as a bed.

In the old manuscripts of the Middle Ages, we find many illustrations of the developments of the chest and its various uses. Fig. 4 shows a long chest with short solid legs on which bedding is laid, and over which a canopy with curtains has been raised. By its side is a chair, the seat of which is manifestly the lid of a small chest. The chest-bed and chair stand on a carpet: the floor is tiled. The shape of the pillow is characteristic of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The carving of the panels in bed and chair show the “linen fold,” which was so popular in the Netherlands and which was laid in even more intricate folds by the English carvers. Gothic tracery in furniture, in combination with the “linen-fold” is shown in the chair of Fig. 5, which exhibits also another chest, or bahut. The original illustration shows flames leaping up the chimney, against 13which the bed is closely placed. The cushions, with heavy tassels at each corner, are similar in shape to those in Fig. 4.

There were several varieties of the chest, known by various names, such as huche, bahut and arche. The huche usually had a flat top: it was the oldest and simplest form—a plain oblong box. As time wore on the huche gave its name to the cabinet-makers (the huchiers) of the Middle Ages. They made windows, doors, panels, shutters, bancs, bahuts, armoires, credences, and whatever else was required; and the guild of huchiers was one of the largest corporations of the period.

The huchiers were particularly distinguished for their execution of choir-stalls and splendid carving. The huche, at first a very simple piece of furniture, was later decorated with beautiful paintings and rich carvings; moreover, it was enriched and strengthened with chiselled and pierced iron hinges and locks.

The chests until the thirteenth century were works of simple carpentry. The faces consist of plain surfaces which are ornamented with paintings on linen or leather; and further adorned with hinges and clamps of pierced and wrought metal.

The bancs, benches or settles, were made in the Middle Ages by the huchiers. They were made of planks and often had backs and arms. In the fifteenth century, they were enriched with sculpture and surmounted by a canopy or daïs. They were also called formes or bancs d’œuvre. The Cluny Museum possesses many fine examples of this period, both civil and religious. 14In the halls and bedrooms of the Mediaeval châteaux the banc is often seen placed laterally before the wide chimney-piece, and its high back was very useful in keeping off the draughts. It may be thought that their rigid form and absence of upholstery rendered them uncomfortable, but the numerous soft cushions with which they were supplied quite atoned for the absence of upholstery. (See Plate II.)

The chief use of the Mediaeval sideboard was the display of ornate plate, crystal and similar articles. The kitchen dresser with its shelves holding plates and dishes set upright against the wall is a lineal descendant of the old dressoir. The shelves of the dressoir were regulated by etiquette: every noble person could have a dressoir with three shelves; others, only two; royalty had four and five.

According to some authorities, the difference between the dressoir and the buffet is simply this: the dressoir was intended to display the articles taken from the buffet, and had no drawers and no cupboard; the buffet, on the other hand, contained both drawers and cupboards. The buffet of our dining-rooms and our cellarets that close with lock and key, are therefore survivals of the credence of the Middle Ages.

Sometimes the credence and dressoir were combined in one piece, or rather the dressoir served as a credence. A small one shown in the illuminated MS. of the Histoire de Gérard, Comte de Nevers, has but one shelf, upon which the silver platters are arranged, leaning against the back, which is covered with some kind of fabric. The cupboard serving as a credence is covered with a cloth on which are placed three silver ewers—aiguières. This was, therefore, more of a buffet than a dressoir, for the real dressoir, as we have seen, was composed of shelves (gradins) and had a back (dorsal), or sometimes a daïs of stuff or sculptured wood.

Plate III.Flemish Dressoir (Fifteenth Century).

Figs. 6–7: Dressoirs (Fifteenth Century); Fig. 8: Table on Trestles; Fig. 9: Metal Chair.

15Varieties of the dressoir of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries appear in Plate III, and Figs. 6 and 7; and a credence of the fifteenth century of Gothic decoration from the Cluny Museum, Paris, on Plate IV.

The Mediaeval table was a simple affair, with either fixed or movable supports. In nine cases out of ten, either in hall or cottage, it consisted simply of a board and trestles. In court and castle, kings and nobles sat only on one side, the other being left free for service, and for a clear view of the mummers, jongleurs and minstrels who entertained the company during the feast. These boards and trestles could be readily folded up and packed away in carts for travelling. A good example of the fifteenth century table of this construction occurs in a picture of Mary Magdalen at the feet of Jesus, by Derick Bouts (1410–1475). This is represented in Fig. 8.

We have seen that the chest with its various developments—chair, bench, bed and dressoir—furnished the Mediaeval chamber. The ordinary hall contained merely a plain buffet and a table, consisting of boards and trestles, with simple forms for seats. Chairs there were none, except for the lord and honoured guests at the head of the board. It must not be supposed, however, that there was no attempt at comfort or decoration in the homes of the Middle Ages. It would be difficult 16to attach too much importance to the use of cushions and hangings.

We have already seen one form of chair in Figs. 4 and 5, which show a box with a lid for the seat, on which is a cushion. This chair has arms and a high panelled back. The common stool, faldstool, or escarbeau also appears in Fig. 4. The rigid square high-backed chair, however, was not the only form known in the Middle Ages. The type represented in Fig. 9 was in great favour. This chair is reproduced from a miniature by Jehan de Bruges (fl. 1370). This form of chair, with curved lines in the back, arms and supports, was a great favourite, not only in the Netherlands, but throughout Europe for several centuries. Sometimes it was made of wood, and carved on the extremities of the back, arms and legs; and sometimes it was made of wrought metal, brass, silver and even gold. In the latter case it was probably plated. Sometimes the inventories mention chairs of great value and very precious workmanship. Some of them were even ornamented with enamel. These were the work of the orfèvre. Brass and copper chairs of this type were made in large numbers by the skilful smiths of Dinant. Naturally they were comfortably and sumptuously upholstered. An inventory of 1328 contains an item of a chair of copper garnished with velvet.

Flanders was always famous for its woven stuffs: wool was the staple on which its prosperity depended. The Duke of Burgundy recognized this when he chose the Golden Fleece as the emblem of his great Order of Knighthood. Apart from the looms, the art of the 17needle was also held in high esteem; and ladies of high and low estate devoted much of their time to embroidery.

Everything was embroidered: vestments and cloths for the church; shoes, gloves, hats and clothes of men and women; and cushions and draperies for the house. Notwithstanding the lavish use of tapestry, the taste for embroidered materials was ever on the increase. The entire furnishings for a bedroom were often the product of the needle; for instance, the “embroidered chamber” of Jane of Burgundy, Queen of Philip V, at her coronation at Rheims in 1330, was ornamented with 1321 parrots, with the arms of the King, and 1321 butterflies, with the arms of Burgundy.

In Mediaeval days, the word “chambre” had a broader signification than it has to-day. By chambre was meant the whole of the rugs, curtains, hangings and upholstery that adorned a bedroom. There was a distinction drawn between “court pointerie” and “tapisserie.” “Court pointerie” included everything pertaining to the bed, such as the daïs, mattress, head-board, etc. The “tapisserie” was changed every season like the altar cloths and vestments of church and clergy. Cords were run across the rafters, and the curtains and canopies were hung on these with hooks. Thus the rooms at the various seasons received such names as the “Easter,” “Christmas,” or “All Saints’ Chamber.” Then again the rooms were named after the subjects (mythological, historical, romantic or religious), of the tapestry that adorned them, such as the Chamber of the Cross, of the Lions, of the Conquest of England, of Queen 18Penthesile, of the Nine Paladins, of the Unicorn and Maiden, etc., etc.

Plate II shows how the canopy and curtains of the bed were usually supported. Sometimes, however, the hangings were attached to the rods by means of tenterhooks.

The inventories and chronicles of the Middle Ages frequently mention textiles; but it is difficult to know from the numerous terms the old scribes employ whether they are describing woollen and silk tapestry, brocades, damasks, velvets, or embroidered material. The fabrics are of many varieties, and their names vary with the details of production and places of manufacture, as well as the material of which they are composed, and the subjects they depict.

A great deal of Byzantine tapestry, with other hangings and carpets, was brought into Western Europe, by those returning from the First Crusade (1096–1099); and after 1146, when Count Robert of Sicily brought home from his expedition into Greece some captive silk-workers, and established a manufactory for brocades and damasks at Palermo, beautiful materials were carried northward from Italy.

During the early centuries the use of tapestry was very extensively devoted to the decoration of churches, and therefore represented scenes from the Scriptures, and lives of the Saints and the Virgin.

Cathedrals and monasteries were very rich in hangings of tapestry, brocades, and embroideries of various kinds, as well as stuffs on which ornaments were laid and sewn. About 985, the Abbot Robert of the monastery 19of Saint Florent of Saumur, ordered a number of curtains, carpets, cushions, dossers and wall-hangings, all of wool; and, moreover, had two large pieces of tapestry made in which silk was introduced, and on which lions and elephants were represented upon a red background.

In 1133, another Abbot of the same monastery had two dossers made to hang in the choir during festivals. On one of these the twenty-four elders of the Apocalypse with citharas and viols were depicted. The hangings he got for the nave, represented centaurs, lions and other animals.

On all festal occasions, the cathedrals were beautifully decorated with superb tapestries. Some of them served as hangings and door-curtains, others draped the altars, while the seats and backs of the benches were covered with pieces called bancalia, spaleriae, and dossalia. Tapestries also covered the baldachins, or canopies; and foot-carpets, called substratoria, tapetes, tapeta, or tapecii were lavishly spread upon the ground.

During the thirteenth century tapestries came into general use for hangings in private mansions. It is not unlikely that Baldwin, Count of Flanders, who came into power in 1204, stimulated the work of the Netherland looms; for, from the very opening years of the thirteenth century, the Flemish weavers adopted brighter colours in their tapestries; and Damme, the poet of Bruges, received all kinds of goods from the East, including “seeds for producing the scarlet dye.”

This was the period when the Roman was in full flower, and the tapestries naturally turned from Biblical to heroic stories. The artists and weavers now 20begin to devote their energies to the production of secular subjects. The stories of Paris and Helen, Æneas, and others from Grecian mythology, become as popular as those inspired by the Bible.

High-warp workers were established in Paris, Arras, Brussels and Tournay in the first half of the fourteenth century; but it is not until the reign of Charles V (1364–1380) that they are explicitly described in the inventories. The King was a collector of French and Flemish tapestries: he had more than 130 armorial tapestries and 33 “tapis à images” that decorated the walls.

The Dukes of Anjou, Orleans, Berry and Burgundy, had very valuable sets. Charles VI also had fine pieces. He bought from Nicholas Bataille, a Flemish worker, who calls himself a citizen of Paris in 1363, about 250 hangings. Bataille produced many superb pieces for the wealthy houses of the day, and many sets for Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. A fellow-worker, Jacques Dourdain, who died in 1407, made tapestries for the Duke of Burgundy, to whom he sent in 1389 The Conquest of the King of Friesland by Aubri the Burgundian, The Story of Marionet, Ladies setting out for the Chase, The Wishes of Love, The Nine Amazons, The History of Bertrand Duguesclin, and A History of the Romance of the Rose. The latter must have been very choice, as it was woven “in gold of Cyprus and Arras thread.” He also furnished this rich patron with other hangings, the greater number of which were cloth of gold.

The marriage of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, to the daughter and heir of the Count of Flanders, in 1369, greatly helped the Flemish tapestry-workers, 21who soon equalled those of Paris. For instance, the Duke gave an order to Michel Bernard of Arras for a fine piece, called The Battle of Rosbeck, of colossal dimensions. It measured 285 square yards, and cost 2,600 francs d’or. Other sets purchased from the Arras looms were: The Coronation of Our Lady, The Seven Ages, Story of Doon de la Roche, History of King Pharaoh and the People of Moses, Life of St. Margaret, The Virtues and Vices, History of Froimont de Bordeaux, Story of St. George, Story of Shepherds and Shepherdesses, Life of St. Anne, Story of Percival the Gaul, Hunt of Guy of Romany, History of Amis and Amile, History of Octavius of Rome, History of King Clovis, History of King Alexander, and of Robert the Fusileer, History of William of Orange, and a Pastoral.

The Flemish looms thus early acquired a great reputation, rivalling those of the midland and northern provinces of France. Paris, Arras, Brussels and Tournay were the chief centres for the most beautiful high-warp tapestry. Arras was celebrated as early as 1311, when Marchaut, Countess of Artois, paid a large sum for “a woollen cloth worked with various figures bought at Arras”; and in 1313 she ordered from the same town “five cloths worked in high warp.” The name became generic: the Italians called all woven tapestries Arazzi; the Spaniards, Panos de raz; and the English, “Arras,” a name that was used for many centuries. Polonius hides “behind the arras,” in Hamlet, and Spenser, in The Faerie Queen, says:

Thence to the hall, which was on every side
With rich array and costly arras dight.
Book I., Canto iv.

22Agnes Sorel owned a superb specimen at her Château de Beauté in 1350. It is described as “a large piece of Arras, on which are pictured the deeds and battles of Judas Maccabaeus and Antiochus, and stretches from one of the gables of the gallery of Beauté to the other, and is the same height as the said gallery.”

During the troublous times in France under Charles VI, the Paris looms ceased to work, and Flanders supplied all the tapestry that came to France. In 1395, the Duke of Orleans orders his treasurer to deliver to Jaquet Dordin, “merchant and bourgeois of Paris,” 1,800 francs for “three pieces of high-warp tapestry of fine Arras thread.”

Leather was also extensively used during the Middle Ages for interior decoration: it was hung upon the walls and beds; it was spread upon the floors; and it covered the seats and backs of chairs, coffers, cabinets, shelves, folding stools, frames, frames for mirrors, and all kinds of boxes both large and small. In 1420, we hear of a piece of Cordovan called cuirace vermeil “to put on the floor around a bed,” and also a “chamber hanging” of “silvered cuir de mouton, ornamented with red figures.” Charles V of France had “fifteen cuirs d’Arragon to put on the floor in summer,” and the Duke of Burgundy’s inventory of 1427 mentions “leathers to spread in the chamber in summer time.”

The Duke of Berry had twenty-nine great cuirs among his possessions, which were used to cover the walls, beds and chairs.

Leather made a very sumptuous, durable and decorative wall-hanging. The patterns of flowers, foliage, 23arms, devices and other figures were richly gilded, and stood out in high relief from the brilliant backgrounds of red, blue, green, orange, violet, brown or silver. Although the use of gilded leather (cuirs dorés) did not become general until the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the art of gilding, silvering, painting and goffering leather had long been known. It is more than probable that the First Crusaders brought home specimens; but it is certain that Cordova was making beautiful gilded leathers in the eleventh century. The most beautiful, as well as the most beautifully worked, leathers came from Spain, where they were often called Guadameciles, from Ghadames in Africa where they were prepared for many years, and from which town the Moors carried the art into Cordova. Ebn’ Abd el Noûr el Hamîri el Toûnsi (of Tunis), in his geographical work written in the twelfth century, thinks it worth while to mention that the djild el Ghadâmosi comes from Ghadames. The monk, Theophilus, in his Diversarum artium Schedula shows how well Arabian leather was known, and describes the methods of preparing it for decoration; but from what he says it appears that leather was used at that period only for the coverings of chairs, stalls, benches, stools, etc., and not for wall-hangings.

From Cordova the manufacture spread into Portugal, Italy, France and Brabant. The great centres for gilded leathers in the Middle Ages were Cordova, Lille, Brussels, Liège, Antwerp, Mechlin and Venice; and each town impressed a special style upon its productions, which connoisseurs are able to recognize.

The Cordovan leathers are stamped with patterns 24of very high relief, gilded and painted, the designs consisting of branches or large flowers in the style of the textiles of Damascus and India. The South Kensington Museum has a very fine collection of Spanish leathers ornamented with foliage, flowers, vases, birds and pomegranates. The colours of the background are green, blue, white, gold, red, etc.

The Flemish leathers are very similar to those of Cordova, but the relief is less pronounced and the designs are more delicate. The hangings of Flanders are almost exclusively made of calfskin, and they were highly prized throughout Europe.

Generally speaking, the earliest specimens of gilded leathers resemble on a large scale the miniatures in the manuscripts: there is little or no perspective, and the subjects are like those of the contemporary tapestry drawn from sacred or mythological stories. The details of the faces, ornaments, costumes, arms, etc., are stamped by hand-work and finished with a brush; and the background, instead of representing sky, is ornamented by guilloches (twisted bands) in gold and colour, applied by means of a goffering iron.

The Low Countries were almost as celebrated for their orfèvrerie as for their tapestries. Celebrated schools of goldsmith’s work existed in the Netherlands during the tenth and eleventh centuries in Waulsort under the direction of d’Erembert, in Stavelot and in Maestricht; and the diocese of Liège had an important atelier for enamel-work in the twelfth century. A very skilful goldsmith named Godefroid de Clerc worked in the town of Huy in the first half of the thirteenth century, 25and another was Friar Hugo, who made in the Abbaye d’Oignies the famous pieces now in the treasury of the Sisters of Notre Dame in Namur.

The principal towns of Flanders, Ghent, Bruges, Tournay, Liège and Brussels, possessed in the thirteenth century skilful goldsmiths who followed the principles of the School of the Rhine. In 1266, the Brussels goldsmiths formed an important Corporation to which John III, Count of Hainault, granted privileges. It was in the fourteenth century particularly that the Flemish goldsmiths acquired a great reputation.

A great deal of the goldsmith’s work during these centuries was ornamented with niello, the style of decoration following the Rhenish School.

The goldsmiths were sculptors, chisellers and engravers, as well as designers; and, moreover, modelled beautifully in wax. When their works were cast in silver, they ornamented these themselves with beaten bas-reliefs, or traced delicate patterns upon the surface of the metal with the burin. Wishing to make the figures stand out more prominently, they used cross-hatchings on the background and cut out the shadowy parts, which they then filled with black enamel. This made the uncovered portions of the silver shine with more brilliancy. To this effective work was given the name niello (nigellum), on account of its colour. This black enamel was used to ornament the chalices and other church vessels, the hilts of swords, handles of knives, and particularly the handsome little coffers, or cabinets, which, with the bahut, comprised the furniture that the bride always carried to her new 26home. These little boxes were usually of ebony, ornamented more or less with incrustations of ivory, shell, mother-of-pearl, pietra-dura, or niello, according to the wealth of the respective families. When decorated with niello, the designs consisted of simple ornaments or arabesques, single figures or groups.

Western Europe made no glass in Mediaeval days: what was used in church and castle all came from the East. In the early inventories, whenever an object of coloured glass is found, it is always accompanied by a mention of its Oriental origin. It is doubtful whether even plain glass was manufactured in England, France, Germany or the Netherlands before the close of the Crusades. The efforts made as late as the fourteenth century by several French and German princes to attract glass-blowers to their dominions shows how scarce they were.

In 1338, we find a feudal noble giving a portion of his forest to a certain Guionet, who was acquainted with the methods of glass-making, to set up a glass factory, on condition of supplying his house every year with one hundred dozen bell glasses, twelve dozen little vase-shaped glasses, twenty dozen hanaps, or cups with feet, twelve amphorae, and other objects. As in all the other industrial arts, Flanders was well to the fore in the manufacture of plain glass. Before 1400, glass factories existed there; but the products were only white glass, not gilded nor enamelled. The Flemish wares, however, were highly prized, and were freely exported to other countries. In 1379, we find in the inventory of Charles V of France: “Ung gobelet 27et une aiguière de voirre blant de Flandres garni d’argent.”

To have glass mounted in silver shows how precious it was considered in those days. Moreover, the royal accounts of the end of the fourteenth century prove that Charles VI accorded high protection and recompense to the Flemish glass-blowers who established their industry in France. Before the end of the fifteenth century, we find entries that would seem to show that the Low Countries were no longer exclusively dependent on the Orient for coloured and enamelled glass. In the inventory of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (1477), we read: “Une coupe de voirre jaune garny d’or; ... une couppe de voirre vert garny d’or; ... un pot de voirre de couleur vert, garny d’or; ... un aiguière de voirre vert torssé garny d’or; ... deux petis pots de voirre bleu espez, garnis d’argent doré; ... ung voirre taillé d’un esgle, d’un griffon et d’une double couronne garny d’argent.” These, however, may have come from Venice, which city had in the latter half of the fifteenth century learned from the Greeks the secret of making coloured, gilded and enamelled glass.

Painting on glass was never held in higher honour than during the fifteenth century: castles and mansions were adorned with coloured windows like the churches; and, therefore, a considerable number of windows of this period have survived. The Cathedrals of Tournay, Dietz and Antwerp offer splendid examples. In M. Levy’s Histoire de la peinture sur verre, are the names of several Flemish glass-painters that have escaped oblivion.

The principal schools that fostered all forms of 28Decorative Art were the Guilds of St. Luke. They sprang up in every prosperous city, and were very close corporations of trades unionism. The idea probably originated in Italy. A Society of St. Luke was established in Venice before 1290, and another in Florence in 1349. One Gerard de Groote organized a brotherhood of this kind in Cologne in the fourteenth century; and Societies of St. Luke were founded in Flanders in the fifteenth century. These Guilds exerted the greatest influence upon taste and skill, for in these Societies of Guilds of St. Luke, side by side with the Masters of Painting and Sculpture, were placed what we may call the Masters of the Decorative Arts. There were workers in stone and marble including mosaics in colour for the decoration of churches and chapels; workers in enamel and ceramics for vases, panelling and pavements; workers in wood, sculptors and carvers for the altar fronts, canopies, choir stalls, etc. (these menuisiers also worked in marquetry and intarsie, and produced furniture for the sacristy, coffers, bahuts, etc., and pontifical seats); glass-workers who produced windows, panels and embroideries with glass beads for decoration; metalworkers, including goldsmiths, bronze-workers, who made sacred vessels, luminaries, fonts ornamented with repoussé-work, chiselling, engraving, incrustation with precious stones and niello-niellure; leather-workers (including makers of harness for wars and tourneys); gilders, setters of jewels; bookbinders; illuminators and painters of manuscripts; weavers and embroiderers of tapestries, silken stuffs, etc.

Society benefited by development of these arts very 29greatly, and the sumptuous adornment of the churches soon extended to private dwellings. Carved panels, or panels inlaid with precious woods, soon decorated the walls of wealthy houses that were further enriched by magnificent tissues of silk and gold, tapestries or panels of stamped leather as a background for pictures beautifully framed in carved and gilt wood. In marquetry furniture, the most remarkable objects were the coffers for jewels, and the cabinets (stipi), in ebony, shell and ivory, embellished with gilt, bronze, and the dower chests, “arches de mariage.”

31

CHAPTER II
THE BURGUNDIAN PERIOD

The luxurious Dukes of Burgundy—Possessions of the House of Burgundy—The Burgundian Court—Household of Philip the Good—the Feast of the Pheasant—the Duke of Burgundy at the Coronation of Louis XI—Arras Tapestries—Sumptuous Dressoirs and their Adornments—Celebrations in honour of the Knights of the Golden Fleece—Luxury of Charles the Bold—Charles the Bold at Trèves—Furnishings of the Abbey of Saint-Maximin—Charles the Bold’s Second Marriage—Furnishings of the Banqueting Hall at Bruges—Descriptions by Olivier de la Marche—Aliénor of Poitier’s Descriptions of the Furniture of the Duchess of Burgundy’s Apartments—Rich Dressoirs—the Drageoir and its Etiquette—the Etiquette of the Escarbeau—Philip the Bold’s Artisans—Flemish Carving—the Forme or Banc—Burgundian Workmanship—Ecclesiastical Work—Noted Carvers—Furniture of the Period—the “Golden Age of Tapestry”-Embroideries—Tapestry-weavers of the Low Countries—Introduction of Italian Cartoons—Goldsmiths’ Work—Furniture of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries.

The most luxurious prince of his age was Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (1342–1404), son of John the Good, King of France. By its alliances, conquests and inheritances, the House of Burgundy attained such wealth and power as to overshadow the French throne itself. Under his grandson, Philip the Good, the Burgundian Court displayed greater splendour than any other in Europe. The reigning dukes were powerful protectors of the arts. Their immense resources, 32drawn from the Flemish hives of industry, enabled them to indulge their taste for architecture, painting, sculpture, illuminated books, tapestry, goldsmiths’ work and sumptuous furniture. They were also insatiable collectors of everything that was curious and rare. Any able artist, sculptor, architect, goldsmith, or image-maker, driven from home by the perpetual civil wars in England, France and Italy, was sure of refuge and employment at the Court of Burgundy. Thus, for a century and a half, the Low Countries were the most important art centre of Europe. Dijon and Brussels, the capitals of the Burgundian dominions, were Meccas of Mediaeval Art; and Tournay, Bruges, Ypres, Ghent, Dinant, and many other industrial centres swarmed with craftsmen who produced all that was luxurious and beautiful for domestic comfort and decoration.

The house of Burgundy constantly increased its possessions. Some idea of its power is gained by a list of Philip the Good’s titles. He was Duke of Burgundy, of Brabant, of Lothier, of Luxembourg; Count of Flanders, of Artois and of Burgundy; Palatine of Hainault, of Holland, of Zeeland, of Namur and of Charolais; Marquis of the Holy Empire; and Lord of Friesland, of Salins and of Mechlin.

The brilliance and luxury of the Burgundian Court are attested by many chroniclers. The pages of Philip de Comines, Olivier de la Marche, and others are full of descriptions of feasts and pageantry from which we can form an idea of the luxurious appointments of the palatial dwellings of the day. Foreigners also, who 33were well acquainted with other European courts, bore witness to Burgundian splendour. One of these, Leo von Rozmital, who visited the courts of Europe in 1465–7, saw the Duke of Burgundy’s treasures. His suite was overpowered by the magnificence. The scribe, Tetzel, tried to enumerate and describe these marvels, but gave up the task in despair, noting “there was nothing like it in the whole world and that it far exceeded the Venetian collection.”

The son and successor of John the Fearless, Philip the Good (1396–1467), was even more luxurious than his grandfather, Philip the Bold. His Court was unequalled in Europe, and when in attendance upon the King of France, his retinue completely eclipsed royalty. His palaces in Brussels, Dijon and Paris were sumptuously furnished; and his collections of tapestries, silver, gold, jewels, embroideries, illuminated manuscripts and printed books excited the admiration of the travellers and chroniclers of the age. His household, composed of four great divisions—the Panetrie, Échansonnerie, Cuisine and Écurie, with subordinate departments, was subject to the strictest rules of etiquette and was adopted as a model by the Spanish sovereigns of the sixteenth century. The ceremonies of the levee, procession, council, audience, service of spices, banquet, etc., were selected as precedents for Vienna and Paris, as well as Madrid.

One of Philip’s most celebrated banquets—the Feast of the Pheasant, which took place at Lille in 1454—will serve to give a glimpse of the Court entertainments in his day. The large hall was hung with tapestry representing the labours of Hercules, and was encircled by 34five tiers of galleries for the spectators. The dressoir of enormous size was adorned with gold and silver vessels, and on either side of it stood a column. One of these had attached to it a carved female figure from whose breast flowed a fountain of hippocras; and to the other was fastened by an iron chain a live lion from Africa, a great curiosity in those days. The three great tables were covered with the most ingenious productions of the cooks, confectioners and machinists. “On a raised platform at the head of the first table sat the Duke. He was arrayed with his accustomed splendour—his dress of black velvet serving as a dark ground that heightened the brilliancy of the precious stones, valued at a million of gold crowns, with which it was profusely decked. Among the guests were a numerous body of knights who had passed the morning in the tilting-field, and fair Flemish dames whose flaunting beauty had inspired these martial sports. Each course was composed of forty-four dishes, which were placed on chariots painted in gold and azure, and were moved along the tables by concealed machinery.” As soon as the company was seated, the bells began to peal from the steeple of a huge pastry church with stained windows that concealed an organ and choir of singers, and three little choristers issued from the edifice and sang “a very sweet chanson.” Twenty-eight musicians hidden in a mammoth pie performed on various instruments, and the fine viands and wines were circulated. After the exhibition of entremets, the pheasant was brought in, the Crusade proclaimed against the Sultan, and the vows registered.

35Another instance of the magnificent display of this Duke occurred when he accompanied Louis XI to Rheims for the ceremony of his coronation in 1461. This is described as follows by the Duke of Burgundy’s chronicler, Georges Chastelain (1403–75):

“Their journey resembled a triumphal procession, in which the Duke of Burgundy appeared as if he were the conqueror and Louis the illustrious captive. The trappings of the horses, that reached to the ground, were of velvet and silk, covered with precious stones and ornaments of gold, embroidered with the Burgundian arms and decorated with silver bells, the jingling of which was very agreeable and solacing. A great number of wagons draped with cloth of gold and hung with banners carried the Duke’s tapestries, furniture, silver and other table service and the utensils for the kitchen. These were followed by herds of fat oxen and flocks of sheep intended for food during the progress of the Duke and his suite. Philip and his son, with the principal nobles, appeared in their greatest magnificence, and were preceded and followed by pages, archers and men-at-arms, all in gorgeous costumes and blazing with jewels.”

Their entrance into Rheims was regarded as the most superb spectacle France had ever witnessed. Louis was crowned by the Duke of Burgundy, “the dean of the peers of France”; and at the banquet that followed the coronation, the Duke of Burgundy was still the most conspicuous figure. The same chronicler continues:

“Though the King sat at the head of the table, 36arrayed in regal attire, with the crown upon his head, he was still the guest of his fair uncle, whose cooks had provided the dinner, whose plate was displayed upon the sideboards and whose servants waited upon the company. In the midst of the repast, the doors were opened and porters entered bearing a costly present for the new sovereign. Such of the guests as were strangers, except from hearsay, to the splendours of the Burgundian Court, gazed in astonishment at the images, goblets, miniature ships, and other articles of the finest gold and rarest workmanship—amounting in value to more than two hundred thousand crowns—which Philip presented to the King as an emphatic token of his loyalty and good-will.”

Chastelain’s note of the great number of wagons that were required to carry the Duke’s tapestries in his journeyings is of interest. The products of the Flemish looms were highly prized by the Burgundian dukes, and great encouragement was given by them to the best work of this nature.

It was from Arras that they chiefly filled their superb store-chambers in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Arras looms had become famous, far and wide; for, when Philip the Bold’s son was taken prisoner at the Battle of Nicopolis (1396), the Sultan Bajazet said to the Duke of Burgundy’s envoy that he “would be pleased to see some high-warp tapestries worked in Arras and Picardy,” and that “they should represent good old stories.” Philip thereupon sent two pack-horses laden with “high-warp cloths, collected and made at Arras, the finest that could be found on this 37side of the mountains.” The set he chose was The History of Alexander. In 1374, there is an entry in the accounts of the Duke of Burgundy “to Colin Bataille, tapissier et bourgeois de Paris,” for six pieces of tapestry “of Arras workmanship,” with the arms of M. the Duke of Burgundy “to cover the pack-horses of Monseigneur when he travelled.” The favourite subjects produced at Arras were romances of chivalry, such as Charlemagne and his Peers, Doon de la Roche, Baudouin de Sebourg, Percival the Gaul, Renaud de Montauban, Aubri de Bourguignon, etc.; stories from Greek mythology, such as Theseus, Jason, Paris and Helen, The Destruction of Troy, etc.; and contemporary events such as The Battle of Rosbeck, The Battle of Liège, History of Bertrand Duguesclin, The Jousts of St. Denis and The Battle of the Thirty. Hunting scenes and pictures of cavaliers and ladies in everyday life were popular, and stories from the Old and New Testaments, Lives of the Saints and Acts of the Martyrs. Allegory also makes its appearance as a subject for cartoons, such as the Virtues and Vices, the Seven Cardinal Sins, the Tree of Life, Fountain of Youth, etc.

When Philip the Good married Isabella of Portugal, Le Fèvre de Saint Rémy notes that on each side of the hall there was a dressoir twenty feet long on a platform two feet high and well enclosed by barriers three feet high, on the side of which was a little gate for entrance and exit; and both dressoirs had five stages, each two and a half feet high. The three upper tiers were covered and loaded with vessels of fine gold; and the two lower ones with many great vessels of silver gilt.

38Again, Chastelain, describing a banquet given by Philip the Good, says: “The Duke had made in the great hall a dressoir constructed in the form of a round castle, ten steps (degrés) in height filled with gold plate in pots and flagons of various kinds, amounting to 6,000 marks (argent doré) not counting those on the top which were of fine gold set with rich gems of marvellous price.”

The above gives some idea of the importance of the dressoir, which undoubtedly was the most showy piece of furniture in hall or chamber. It often assumed enormous proportions on great state occasions.

A very ornate one of this period is reproduced in Plate III. It is beautifully carved with Gothic tracery, leaf-work, Biblical scenes and personages, and coats-of-arms. It is interesting to compare this with the simple form of Plate IV, which has no intermediate shelf for the display of plate; but is also interesting on account of its carving. This, with its drawers and cupboards, was a most serviceable piece of furniture and must have produced a fine effect in a room when the cupboard head was decked with plate.

The great celebrations in honour of the Knights of the Golden Fleece also offered occasion for the display of the greatest splendour at the Burgundian Court. A veritable army of painters, sculptors, illuminators, carvers and machinists was employed to design and prepare the entremets exhibited during the banquets. Among the huchiers who worked for the banquet given to the Knights of the Golden Fleece in 1453 were Guillaume Maussel and his son, Jacob Haquinet Penon, Jehan Daret and his two companions, and Jehan de Westerhem.

Plate IV.Credence (Fifteenth Century).

CLUNY MUSEUM, PARIS.

39When Charles the Bold (1433–1477) succeeded his father, Philip the Good, in 1467, he maintained his Court with the same state, ceremony and luxury. His daily life was surrounded by pomp and punctilious etiquette. He dined in state every day and was always attended by a retinue of knights, equerries and pages. When he went to war, he always carried rich silver and tapestries, as well as costly viands and wines. The Swiss gained rich spoils after the Battle of Nancy and carried away among other articles of value tapestries which can be seen to-day in Nancy, Berne and other cities.

The meeting of Charles the Bold with the Emperor at Trèves, in 1473, occasioned a great display of magnificence. The far-famed luxury of the Burgundian Court was well exhibited during the eight weeks that the two Courts spent in the Rhenish city. Charles gave the most superb entertainments. The Abbey of Saint Maximin, which the Duke chose for his temporary residence, was fitted up for the occasion with furniture, tapestries, richly embroidered stuffs, gold and silver from his palaces. The great hall was hung with tapestries, and the chair of state for the Emperor, the canopy and the seats for the other great personages on the daïs were covered with rich embroidered hangings. The arms of Burgundy, the insignia of the Golden Fleece and other heraldic decorations were conspicuously displayed. Many of the most valuable ecclesiastical treasures collected by Philip the Good, such as silver images, candlesticks, and crucifixes, and reliquaries of gold 40studded with gems were brought to adorn the altars and shrines of the church; and, in the refectory, an immense dressoir, twenty feet broad, reached from floor to ceiling, its ten receding shelves gleaming with gold and silver plate.

Charles the Bold’s second marriage in 1468 to Margaret of York furnished another occasion for the display of his wealth and magnificence. John Paston, who went to Bruges to attend the wedding, was simply dazzled and overwhelmed by what he saw. Writing to his mother, he says: “As for the Dwkys coort, as of lords, ladys and gentylwomen, knyts, sqwyers and gentylmen, I herd never of non lyek it, save King Artourys cort. And by my trowthe, I have no wyt nor remembrans to wryte to you, half the worchep that is her.”

Passing by the descriptions of jousts and other entertainments, we may note that workmen—painters, decorators and machinists—had been engaged for many months to adorn Bruges fittingly for the nuptial festivities. The streets were hung with tapestries and cloth of gold, triumphal arches were erected at intervals, and at different points along the road the bride was diverted with “Histories,” the joint productions of dramatist, decorator, painter and machinist. The front of the palace was covered with paintings of heraldic devices and magnificent decorations, and behind the palace, in the tennis court, a new banqueting hall was erected for the occasion. This building was a hundred and forty feet long, seventy feet wide and more than sixty feet high. The walls were hung with some of the Duke’s most famous tapestries, one set of which represented 41Jason’s quest of the Golden Fleece; the ceiling was painted, and at every possible place banners and heraldic devices were hung. An enormous dressoir in the centre of the hall displayed on its tiers of shelves an overwhelming exhibition of gold and silver treasures glittering with gems. The tables were arranged lengthwise on either side of the hall, except one reserved for the Duke’s family and the guests of highest rank. This table was placed on a raised platform at the upper end of the hall, and over it was spread a canopy with curtains hanging to the floor, so as to present the appearance of an open pavilion. The chroniclers of the day note that “the hall was lighted by chandeliers in the form of castles surrounded by forests and mountains, with revolving paths on which serpents, dragons and other monstrous animals seemed to roam in search of prey, spouting forth jets of flame that were reflected in huge mirrors, so arranged as to catch and multiply the rays. The dishes containing the principal meats represented vessels, seven feet long, completely rigged, the masts and cordage gilt, the sails and streamers of silk, each floating in a silver lake between shores of verdure and enamelled rocks, and attended by a fleet of boats laden with lemons, olives and condiments. There were thirty of these vessels and as many huge pasties in a castellated shape with banners waving from their battlements and towers; besides tents and pavilions for the fruit, jelly dishes of crystal supported by figures of the same material dispensing streams of lavender and rosewater, and an immense profusion of gold and silver plate.”

42The festivities continued for more than a week. Every day a tournament, banquet and dance took place. At one of the banquets, the decorations were so wonderful that the guests marched around the tables to examine the artistic creations. These consisted of gardens made of a mosaic-work of rare and highly polished stones, inlaid with silver, and surrounded with hedges made of gold. In the centre of each enclosure was placed a tree of gold with branches, foliage and fruit exquisitely enamelled in imitation of orange, pear, apple and other trees. Fountains of variously perfumed waters rendered the air deliciously fragrant.

Olivier de la Marche’s description of the banqueting hall is as follows:

“In this hall were three tables, one of which was placed across the ends of the others. This table, higher than the others, stood upon a platform. The other two tables were placed on the two sides of the hall, occupying the whole length; they were very long and very handsome, and in the centre of the said hall a high and rich buffet in the form of a lozenge was placed. The top of the said buffet was enclosed with a balustrade, and the whole was covered with tapestries and hung with the arms of Monsieur le Duc; and above rose the steps and degrees on which were displayed many vessels, the largest on the lowest, and the richest and smallest on the top shelves; that is to say, on the lowest shelves stood the silver-gilt vessels, and above them the vessels of gold garnished with precious stones, of which he had a great number. On the top of the buffet stood a rich jewelled cup, and on each of the four corners large 43and entire unicorns’ horns, and these were very large and very handsome. These vessels of parade were not to be used, for there were other vessels, pots and cups of silver in the hall and chambers intended for service.”

Turning now from the buffet d’apparat, he describes the “buffet d’usage.” Regarding the service, “The new Duchess was served by the cup-bearer, the carver and the pantler, all English, all knights and men of noble birth, and the usher of the hall cried: ‘Knights to the meat!’ And then they all went to the buffet to fetch the meat, and all the relations of Monsieur and all the knights marched around the buffet in the order of the great house two by two after the trumpeters before the meat.”

We sometimes get a glimpse of a luxurious chamber of the Burgundian Court from Aliénor of Poitiers, who wrote Les Honneurs de la Court. Her testimony is trustworthy, for her mother was maid of honour to the Duchess Isabella, third wife of Philip the Good; and, therefore, she undoubtedly witnessed what she describes. She tells us that the chamber of Isabella of Bourbon, wife of Charles the Bold, Count of Charolais, was very large and contained two beds, separated by a space four or five feet wide. A large ciel, or canopy, of green damask covered both beds; and from it hung curtains of satin which moved on rings, and could completely screen the beds when desired. The lambrequin of the canopy and the curtains were fringed with green silk. On each bed was an ermine counterpane, lined with very fine violet cloth. The chronicler expressly notes that the black tails were left on the fur. “La grande 44chambre” from which the “<